These piRNA complexes are mostly involved in the epigenetic and post-transcriptional silencing of transposable elements and other spurious or repeat-derived transcripts, but can also be involved in the regulation of other genetic elements in germ line cells. More than 50, unique piRNA sequences have been discovered in mice and more than 13, in D. In the early s, it was discovered that a single mutation in the fruit fly genome could specifically activate all copies of a retrovirus-like element called Gypsy in the female germline. The site of the mutations that made these Gypsies "dance" was thus called the flamenco locus. In , Aravin et al.
A single female-specific piRNA is the primary determiner of sex in the silkworm
Telomeric TART elements target the piRNA machinery in Drosophila
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