Hollingsworth v. Perry was a series of United States federal court cases that legalized same-sex marriage in the state of California. The case began in in the U. District Court for the Northern District of California , which found that banning same-sex marriage violates equal protection under the law. This decision overturned ballot initiative Proposition 8 , which had banned same-sex marriage. After the State of California refused to defend Proposition 8, the official sponsors of Proposition 8 intervened and appealed to the Supreme Court.
Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining Proponents of legal gay marriage contend that gay marriage bans are discriminatory and unconstitutional, and that same-sex couples should have access to all the benefits enjoyed by different-sex couples. Opponents contend that marriage has traditionally been defined as being between one man and one woman, and that marriage is primarily for procreation. Read more background….
Marriage, a prominent institution regulating sex, reproduction, and family life, is a route into classical philosophical issues such as the good and the scope of individual choice, as well as itself raising distinctive philosophical questions. Political philosophers have taken the organization of sex and reproduction to be essential to the health of the state, and moral philosophers have debated whether marriage has a special moral status and relation to the human good. Philosophers have also disputed the underlying moral and legal rationales for the structure of marriage, with implications for questions such as the content of its moral obligations and the legal recognition of same-sex marriage. Feminist philosophers have seen marriage as playing a crucial role in women's oppression and thus a central topic of justice.
From October 1 to October 17, , the United States federal government entered a shutdown and curtailed most routine operations because neither legislation appropriating funds for fiscal year nor a continuing resolution for the interim authorization of appropriations for fiscal year was enacted in time. Regular government operations resumed October 17 after an interim appropriations bill was signed into law. During the shutdown, approximately , federal employees were indefinitely furloughed , and another 1. Only those government services deemed "excepted" under the Antideficiency Act were continued; and only those employees deemed "excepted" were permitted to report to work.