Most of us learned as children that the age of a tree could be found by counting its rings. Rings of trees growing in temperate climates can indeed tell their age through their annual rings and also help determine the age of wood used to construct buildings or wooden objects. The ages of wooden objects can be revealed by cross-dating, the process of matching ring patterns between wood samples of known and unknown ages. Concentric rings of various widths mark the annual growth of trees. The underlying patterns of wide or narrow rings record the year-to-year fluctuations in the growth of trees.
Archaeologists have a group of unlikely allies: trees. Dendrochronology, the scientific method of studying tree rings, can pinpoint the age of archaeological sites using information stored inside old wood. Originally developed for climate science, the method is now an invaluable tool for archaeologists, who can track up to 13, years of history using tree ring chronologies for over 4, sites on six continents. Under ideal conditions, trees grow quickly, leaving wide annual rings behind. During droughts, unseasonable cold, and other unusual conditions, growth slows, leaving behind narrow rings. In the early 20th century, astronomer Andrew Ellicott Douglass began studying trees in the American Southwest to learn more about how sunspots affected climate on Earth. Douglass eventually extended his work from living trees to wood used in ancient pueblo sites and began using them to piece together a regional chronology that could be used to date such archaeological sites.
Dendrochronology: How Tree-Ring Dating Reveals Human Roots
Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating , as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates coins and written history. Techniques include tree rings in timbers, radiocarbon dating of wood or bones, and trapped-charge dating methods such as thermoluminescence dating of glazed ceramics.
When you look at the cross-section of a tree, you see a series of concentric rings. One ring is the layer of wood produced in one growing season. One annual ring is one dark ring and one light ring together.
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